This can be explained by the interactions between the FWAs and carrier chemicals. In addition, many consumers have considered FWAs to be toxic, despite the lack of clear evidence for this assessment. Nonetheless, the use of fluorescent whitening agents FWAs has proven to be the most practical and effective in paper production Lee et al. The preparation of the starch solution and surface sizing were carried out in the same manner as described in our previous study Kim and Lee The top side of a never-sized paper was surface sized, and the paper was then dried in an air dryer for s. However, papermakers must reduce the amount of FWAs added to their products because FWAs present many disadvantages associated with the papermaking process, as well as paper quality; the public also has concerns about these chemicals in papers.
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